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Cytology: Cytology is the
process of taking cell specimens for analysis. This is usually
done after a suspicious site has been identified endoscopically.
Note that suspicious sites can be located in the
gastrointestinal tract or in the bronchial tree (upper portion
of the lungs).
site has been located, the brush catheter is advanced through
the scope with the brush remaining inside. Doing so keeps the
brush from being contaminated with cells from a location which
is not of interest. The brush is then extended out of the
catheter and physically brushed back and forth over the site of
interest. Cells are removed and remain in the brush. The brush
is then retracted into the catheter and the catheter is then
then either transferred to a slide for examination under a
microscope or are transferred to a container of fixative solution
to prevent sample deterioration for later analysis.
Needle Biopsy: In the bronchii,
suspicious sites are often identified but lie below the level of
the surface tissue. Brushing is thus ineffective in obtaining a
tissue sample. A transbronchial needle is used to obtain a
sample in this case.
suspicious site is located through the bronchoscope. The needle
catheter is advance to the tip of the brochoscope. The needle is
then extended. The bronchoscope and needle are together advanced
so that the needle penetrates the site. A syringe is used to
aspirate (suck in) tissue. The needle can then be retracted and
the catheter removed. A sample of tissue is thus available for
the process of taking tissue samples for subsequent analysis. In
endoscopy this most commonly refers to the taking of a tissue
sample using a biopsy forceps.
be performed in the gastrointestinal tract and the bronchii.
First, a suspicious site is located endoscopically, for example
an ulcer in the stomach. Then the biopsy forceps is passed
through the endoscope. The jaws of the biopsy forceps are
maneuvered so that they can close on the area of interest. The
handle of the forceps is operated to close the jaws tightly. The
cutting edges of the jaws and mechanical force exerted by the
handle remove a tissue sample. The endoscope is then removed
with the biopsy forceps in place. The sample is then available
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information is not for procedural application. Please consult
your physician or healthcare provider for professional
consultation in regards to these educational topics.